KNOW ABOUT HANTAVIRUS

FAMILY IS HANTAVURIS in
♥️ BUNYAVIRIDAE

SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF HANTAVIRUS;-

-♥️RNA virus
-♥️Negative strand genome
-♥️Enveloped
-♥️Replicates in cytoplasm
-♥️No arthropod vector
-♥️Rodent hosts

THE 3 SEROLOGICALLY DISTINCT OLD WORLD HANTAVURIS AND WHAT DO THEY CAUSE
-♥️Hantaan virus
-♥️Seoul virus
-♥️Puumala virus

♥️Result in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, ranging from mild to serious human disease affecting primarily the kidney

How is hantavirus transmitted?

-♥️To humans: result of direct contact with infected rodent excreta
-♥️Aerosol route is supported

DISTRIBUTION OF HANTAVURIS

♥️Worldwide

SPECIES ARE AFFECTED BY HANTAVIRUS;-

-♥️Humans
-♥️Mice
-♥️Rats

THE MOST FREQUENT CLINICAL SIGNS ASSOCIATED WITH HANTAVIRUS;-

-♥️High fever
-♥️Myalgia
-♥️Nausea/vomiting
-♥️Cough

THE RARE CLINICAL SIGNS ASSOCIATED WITH HANTAVIRUS

-♥️Rhinorrhea
-♥️Sore throat

SOME OTHER CLINICAL SIGNS ASSOCIATED WITH HANTAVIRU;-

-♥️Dizziness
-♥️Arthralgia
-♥️Shortness of breath (late in course of disease)

SOME EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HANTAVIRUS

-♥️Incubation period variable
-♥️Rodent hosts develop persistent or chronic infection with no apparent clinical signs and thus act as reservoir
-♥️Infected rodents excrete virus in urine, saliva, and feces

THE SUDDEN ONSET OF ILLNESS CHARACTERIZED BY

-♥️High fever
-♥️Chills
-♥️Malaise
-♥️Myalgia
-♥️Headache
-♥️Back ache
-♥️Orbital pain
-♥️Flushing on face, neck, chest

SOME CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PATHOGENESIS OF HANTAVIRUS;-

-♥️Conjunctival hemorrhage
-♥️Petechiae on soft palate, face, neck, axillary folds
-♥️Albuminuria, hemturia, azotemia, tubular cells in urine
-♥️Hypotension, clinical shock
-♥️Hypercalcemia, metabolic acidosis
-♥️Pulmonary edema, cerebral bleeding
-♥️Renal + cardiac failure
-♥️Swollen + hemorrhagic kidneys

SOME PE FINDINGS WITH HANTAVIRUS;-

-♥️Tachypnea
-♥️Tachycardia
-♥️Hypotension
-♥️Crackles or rales on lung examination

SOME RADIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS ASSOCIATED WITH HANTAVIRUS;-

-♥️Bilateral interstitial infiltrates, moderate to rapid progression
-♥️Bilateral alveolar infiltrates
-♥️Pleural effusion

SOME COMMON HEMATOLOGY FINDINGS ASSOCIATED WITH HANTAVIRUS;-

-♥️Thrombocytopenia
-♥️Atypical lymphocytes (immunoblasts)
-♥️Left shift on WBC differential
-♥️Elevated hematocrit
-♥️Elevated WBC

SOME COMMON CHEMISTRY FINDINGS ASSOCIATED WITH HANTAVIRUS;-

-♥️Hypoalbuminemia
-♥️Elevated LDH
-♥️Elevated AST
-♥️Elevated ALT

HANTAVIRUS TREATED

HPS management;-

-♥️Early aggressive intensive care
-♥️Early use of inotropic agents
-♥️Early ventilation
-♥️Careful monitoring: oxygenation, fluid balance, blood pressure

HANTAVIRUS INFECTION DIAGNOSED;-

Laboratory confirmed diagnosis:
-Serology – IgM, IgG
-♥️IHC
-♥️RT-PCR
-♥️Virus isolation
-♥️Electron microscopy
-♥️IFA
-♥️Others

WHAT IMMUNITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH HANTAVIRUS?

-♥️Presence of hantavirus specific IgM 3-6 months
-♥️IgG antibody can be detected for years in recovered patient
-♥️Immune complexes responsible for acute renal failure
Prevention:
Avoid high-risk situations!!!
ex. when going into cabins or outbuildings that have been closed for a while, open them up and let them air out before cleaning them

PREVENTION;-

Treat rodents (alive or dead) and their products as if they all may be infected or contaminated (use suitable precautions):
♥️Wear rubber gloves when cleaning or working in areas infested with rodents
♥️Avoid vacuuming or sweeping up rodent droppings, uring or nesting materials (Do not stir up and breathe dust)

♥️**Mice are reservoir for at least human pathogens.

PREVENTION:

HOW TO REMOVE RODENT CARCASSES OR THEIR PRODUCTS;-

♥️Always use protective gloves
♥️ Thoroughly wet contaminated areas, nesting materials, or dead rodents with a household detergent or liquid disinfectant that deactivates the virus.
ex. 1.5 c bleach per gallon water (must be fresh b/c chloride evaporates v. fast)
–Prevents virus from being aerosolized into the air
♥️Once everything is wet, take up contaminated materials with a damp towel
♥️Dispose the towel and other contaminated materials in double bags along with all cleaning materials.
–burn or bury is best way to dispose
♥️Mop or sponge the area with disinfectant
♥️ Disinfect gloves with either disinfectant or soap or water OR here’s an idea: throw them away too, eh.

PREVENTION:

CONTROL OF MOUSE POPULATION;-

♥️. Eliminate any possible nesting sites, as well as junk and other things that provide shelter to rodents
♥️ Keep food sources away by elevating hay, woodpiles, and garbage cans
♥️ Locate them 100 feet or more from your house
♥️ Store all animal feed in containers with lids
♥️When you feed your pet, put out enough food for only one day (discard excess food at night and take up water bowls)

TREATMENT;-

♥️No specific treatment for Hantavirus infection. Respiratory intensive care until you can clear the virus. Acute infection.

CONTROL;-

OUTBREAK MANAGEMENT;-

♥️ Report to the local health authority
♥️Practice public education at different levels
–Gen public, clinicians, media (5th grade level for them cuz they will screw it up)
♥️ Exterminate rodents in and out of the affected household
♥️Monitoring of rodent numbers and infection rates (surveillance programs)
♥️ Apply some of the preventive measures indicated above
♥️ Disinfection of possible contaminated areas
♥️Encourage natural predators such as non-poisonous snakes, owls and hawks who play a major role in controlling rodent populations in the wild (these animals and cats resistant, unclear about dogs–do see hemorrhagic in Europe)

REMEMBER;-

♥️Chances of getting Hantavirus is very low, but the consequences of getting it are very serious.
–If you have been around rodents and have symptoms such as fever, muscle aches, and severe shortness of breath be sure to tell you doctor about your exposure.

Thanks for visiting my website

Source:- MDSMAFE

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