ANATOMY OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

ALIMENTARY CANAL;-

Digestive tract consisting of a tube running between the mouth and the anus

SALIVARY GLANDS;-

Three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands

GALLBLADDER;-

Stores and concentrates the bile produced in the liver

LIVER;-

Produces bile and stores glycogen

PANCREAS;-

Produces insulin and glucagon, enzymes, and sodium bicarbonate

MOUTH;-

Oral cavity; mechanical digestion (chewing) and chemical digestion of carbs start

PHARYNX;-

The throat; last place food and air mix

ESOPHAGUS;-

Muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach

STOMACH;-

Large muscular sac that continues mechanical digestion and starts chemical digestion of proteins

SMALL INTESTINE;-

Organ in which most chemical digestion takes place

LARGE INTESTINE;-

Organ that absorbs water from undigested material

RECTUM;-

Lower part of the large intestine where feces are stored

INGESTION;-

Process of taking in food

MECHANICAL PROCESSING;-

Physical breakdown of foods

CHEMICAL DIGESTION;-

Process in which enzymes and other chemicals are used to break foods into their smaller chemical building blocks

SECRETION;-

Process of producing a substance within an organ and discharging it

ABSORPTION;-

Process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system into the blood

ELIMINATION;-

Process of passing undigested material out of the anus

DEFECATION;-

Elimination of fecal waste through the anus

DUODENUM;-

First portion of the small intestine which receives secretions from the gallbladder and pancreas

ILEUM;-

Last and longest portion of the small intestine where most absorption takes place

JEJUNUM;-

Second portion of the small intestine where most chemical digestion is completed

PEYER’S PATCHES;-

Collections of lymphatic tissue found along the length of the small intestine

PROPULSION;-

Movement of food from one organ to the next

PERISTALSIS;-

Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system

SEGMENTATION;-

Rhythmic mixing of chyme with digestive enzymes in the small intestine

MUCOSA;-

Innermost layer of digestive tract

SUBMUCOSA;-

Layer superficial to the mucosa which contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves

MUSCULARIS EXTERNAL;-

Bilayer of smooth muscle which consists of a layer running circularly and another running longitudinally

SEROSA;-

Outer layer the alimentary canal; secretes a watery fluid to reduce friction

VISCERAL PERITONEUM;-

Serous membrane that covers abdominal organs

PARIETAL PERITONEUM;-

Serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity

MESENTERIES;-

Connective tissues that anchor organs to the body wall and provide a pathway for nerves and blood vessels

TONGUE;-

Muscular organ which assists with chewing, swallowing, and taste

TONSILS;-

Clusters of lymphatic tissue found in the pharynx

MASTICATION;-

Chewing the food.

HAUSTRA;-

Pouches of the large intestine that allow expansion and elongation

ANUS;-

Muscular opening at the end of the rectum.

CECUM;-

First part of the large intestine where appendix is attached

GLUCAGON;-

Pancreatic hormone that raises blood sugar

INSULIN;-

Pancreatic hormone that lowers blood sugar

MICROVILLI;-

Extensions of the plasma membrane that increase its surface area

VILLI;-

Projections inside the small intestine that increase the surface area for absorption of nutrients

BILE;-

A substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles

ILEOCECAL VALVE;-

Sphincter separating the small and large intestine

RENNIN;-

A milk protein-digesting enzyme found in babies but not adults

GASTRIN;-

Hormone secreted by stomach cells that signal glands in stomach to release gastric juice

CHYME;-

Acidic, semiliquid mass of partially digested food and gastric juice

PEPSIN;-

Enzyme hat begins the breakdown of proteins in the stomach

MUCUS NECK CELLS;-

Produce an acidic mucus in the stomach

PARIETAL CELLS;-

Produce hydrochloric acid which kills bacteria and activates pepsinogen

CHIEF CELLS;-

Secrete pepsinogen, the inactive form of pepsin, in the stomach

GOBLET CELLS;-

Secrete an alkaline mucus to protect the lining of the small intestine from stomach acid

SALIVARY AMYLASE;-

Enzyme in saliva that begins the breakdown of carbs

SALIVA;-

Contains mucus, enzymes, and water; moistens food

DEGLUTITION;-

Swallowing

SOFT PALATE;-

Soft part of the back of the roof of the mouth, closes off nasal cavities when swallowing

EPIGLOTTIS;-

Flap of cartilage that covers the trachea while swallowing

CARDIO ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER;-

Muscular opening between the esophagus and stomach

PYLORIC SPHINCTER;-

Circular muscle that controls the movement of chyme from the stomach to the small intestine

BOLUS;-

Chewed up clump of food

RAUGAE;-

Numerous folds of the stomach which allow the stomach to be able to expand.

Source;- MDSMAFE

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