KNOW EVERYTHING ABOUT URINE

URINECOLOR;-

Yellow color of urine is caused by UROCHROMES. The amount of urochrome produced dependent on metabolic state

Increased amounts of urochrome signify thyroid conditions and fasting states, and in urine that stands at room temp

UROERYTHRIN;-

Pink pigment evident in specimens that have been refrigerated. it attachse to urates, thus adding a pink color

UROBILIN;-

Oxidation product of urobilinogen, and imparts an orange-brown color to urine that is not fresh

COLORLESS URINE;-

Cause:recent fluid consumption
Lab Correlations: commonly observed with random specimens

PALE YELLOW URINE;-

Due to polyuria or diabetes insipidus (increased 24-hr volume), diabetes mellitus (elevated specific gravity), or just a random dilute specimen (recent fluid consumption)

DARK YELLOW URINE;-

Cause: Concentrated Specimen
Lab Correlations: May be normal after strenuous excercise or in first morning specimen

AMBER URINE;-

Lab Correlations:Dehydration from fever or burns

ORANGE URINE;-

Bilirubin (yellow foam when shaken and pos test for bilirubin), acriflavine (neg bile test and green fluorescence), pyridium (drug adminstered for UTIs, orange foam and thick orange pigment), nitrofurantoin (antibiotic for UTIs), phenindione (anticoagulant, orange in alkaline urine, colorless in acid urine)

YELLOW GREEN OR YELLOW BROWN URINE;-

Bilirubin oxidzed to biliverdin (colored foam in acidic urine and false-neg for bilirubin)

GREEN URINE;-

Cause: Pseudomonas infection
Lab Correlations:Positive urine culture

BLUE-GREEN URINE;-

Cause:
Amitriptyline (Antidepressant)
Methocarbamol (Muscle reaxant, may be green-brown)
Clorets (none)
Indican (Bacterial Infections)
Methylene blue (Fistulas)
Phenol (When Oxidized)

PINK URINE;-

Causes: RBCs
Lab Correlations: Cloudy urine with + chemical test results for blood and RBCs visible microscopically

RED URINE;-

Cause:
Hemoglobin (Clear urine with + chemical test for blood-intravascular hemolysis)
Myglobin (Clear urine with +chemical test for blood-muscle damage)
Porphyrins (-chemical test for blood)
Beets (alkaline urine genetically susceptible persons)
Rifampin (Tb medication)
Menstrual contamination(Cloudy specimen with RBCs, mucus and clots

BROWN URINE;-

Cause: RBC s oxidized to methemoglobin (Seen in acidic urine after standing; specific tests are available)

BLACK URINE;-

Cause:
globin (blood)
methemoglobin (denatured hemoglobin)
homogentisic acid (seen in alkaline urine after standing)
melanin (urine darkens on standing and reacts with nitroprusside and ferric chloride)
phenol derivatives (interfere with copper reduction tests)
argyrol (color disappears with ferric chloride)
methyldopa (Antihypertensive)
metronidazole (Darkens on standing)

NEON YELLOW;-

B vitamins or liver disease

PORT WINE;-

porphyria

URINATION;-

The act of passing urine from the bladder through the urethra to theh outside of the body.

FRACTURE PAN;-

A bedpan that is flatter than the regular bedpan. It is used for residents who cannot assist with raising their hips onto a regular bedpan.

PORTABLE (BEDSIDE) COMMODE;-

Is a chair with a toilet seat and a removable container underneath.

URINARY INCONTINENCE;-

The inability to control the bladder, which leads to an involuntary loss of urine.

URINARY TRACT INFECTION(UTI);-

Causes inflammation of the bladder and the ureters

CALCULI (KIDNEY STONES);-

Form when urine crystallizes in the kidneys. Kidney stones can block the kidneys and ureters, causing severe pain. Kidney stones can from from the same conditions caused by UTI’s

NEPHRITIS;-

An inflammation of the kidneys. Symptoms include a decrease in urine output, rusty-colored urine, and a burning feeling during urination.

RENOVASCULAR HYPERTENSION;-

A condition in which a blockage of arteries in the kidneys cause high blood pressure

CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE(CRF);-

Occurs because the kidneys become unable to eliminate certain waste products from the body. This disease as the result of chronic urinary tract infections, nephritis, or diabetes. Excessive salt in the diet can also cause damage to the kidneys.

KIDNEY DIALYSIS;-

An artificial means of removing the body’s waste products, is done when the kidneys are no longer able to function properly.

CATHETER;-

A thin tube inserted into the body that is used to drain fluids or inject fluids.

STRAIGHT CATHETER;-

Dos not remain inside the person. It is removed immediately after urine is drained.

INDWELLING CATHETER;-

Remained inside he bladder for a period of time.

CONDOM CATHETER;-

Has an attachment on the end that fits onto the penis. The attachment is fastened with special tape.

SPECIMEN;-

A sample that is used for analysis in order to try to make a diagnosis.

ROUTINE SPECIMENS TIME;-

Is collected any time the resident voids (urinates).

HAT;-

A plastic collection container sometimes put into a toilet to collect and measure urine or stool.

CLEAN-CATCH SPECIMEN;-

Is collected by first cleaning the perineal area and then urinate a small amount into the toilet to clear the urethra. Then the person begins urinating again into a clean or sterile container, stopping before urination is complete. The container is removed, and the person finishes urinating into the toilet.

24 HOUR URINE SPECIMEN;-

Collects all the urine voided by a resident in a 24 hour period. It is used to test for certain chemicals and hormones

NORMAL COLOR OF URINE;-

Yellow or amber.

LIST THINGS TO OBSERVE AND REPORT TO THE NURSE ABOUT URINE;-

♥️Cloudy
♥️Dark or rust-colored
♥️Strong, offensive, or fruity smelling urine
♥️Resident complaints of pain, burning, or pressure when urinating
♥️Blood, pus,mucus, or discharge in urine
♥️Protein or glucose in urine
♥️Urinary incontinence

BEST POSITION FOR WOMEN AND MEN TO BE IN TO URINATE;-

♥️For women, the best position is sitting. For men, the best position is standing.

🌑When performing pernial care, in what direction should the nursing assistant wipe the resident.
♥️They should wipe the resident front to back.

🌑How should a bed pan be positioned? How should a fracture pan be positioned?
♥️A bed pan should be positioned with the wider end aligned with the residents buttocks. A fracture pan should be positioned with the handle towards the food of bed.

LIST AND DEFINE THE DIFFERENT TYPE OF INCONTINENCE;-

♥️Stress in on incontinence is the loss of urine due to an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, for example, when sneezing, laughing, or coughing.

♥️Urge incontinence is involuntary voiding from a sudden urge to void.

♥️Mixed incontinence is a combination of both urge and incontinence and stress incontinence

♥️Reflex incontinence is similar to urge incontinence, but usually occurs when a specific bladder volume is reached

♥️Functional incontinence is urine loss caused by things outside the urinary tract

♥️Overflow incontinence is loss of urine due to overflow or over-dissension of the bladder

🌑Is urinary incontinence a normal part of aging?
♥️No (even though it is more common in elderly age and severity increases with age)

🌑Why should a nursing assistant never refer to an incontinence brief as a diaper?
♥️Because it makes the residents feel as if they are children.

🌑What are four was that nursing assistants can help prevent urinary tract infections?
♥️Encourage the resident to wipe from front to back after elimination
♥️When giving perineal care wipe front to back
♥️Give careful perineal care when changing incontinence briefs
♥️Encourage plenty of fluids such as juices and water
♥️♥️Offer bedpan or trip to the toilet at least every two hours. Answer call lights promptly
Taking showers, rather than baths
Report cloudy, dark, or foul smelling urine, or if resident urinates often in small amounts

🌑Why should the catheter drainage bag always be kept lower than the hips or the bladder?
♥️Because the urine can flow back up front the bag to the bladder which can cause infection.

🌑Why should the catheter tubing be kept as straight as possible?
♥️Kinks, twists, or pressure on the tubing can cause prevent urine form draining?

SIGNS SYMPTOMS TO BE REPORTED TO THE NURSE WITH CATHETERS;-

♥️Blood is in the urine or tine looks unusual in any way
♥️Catheter bag does not fill after several hours
♥️Catheter bag fills suddenly
♥️Catheter is not in place
♥️Urine leaks from the catheter
♥️Resident reports pain or pressure
♥️Odor is present

🌑How can nursing assistants help reduce discomfort and and embarrassment when assisting with specimen collection?
♥️When collecting specimens, the NA should first explain how she will be collecting the specimen. The NA should do this in private, keeping her voice low. She should also close the door to the bathroom or bedroom and pull the privacy curtain. In addition, the NA should be discreet when removing the specimen form the room.

LIST THINGS THE REAGENT STRIPS CAN TEST FOR IN URINE;-

♥️Testing PH levels
♥️Testing for glucose and ketones
♥️Testing for blood
♥️Specific gravity (urine density)

🌑Why do residents who are incontinent need careful perineal care?
♥️Urine is very irritating to the skin and can cause damage.

🌑About how long after fluids are taken should the NA offer to take a resident to the bathroom?
♥️About 30 minuets after intaking fluids

Thanks for visiting 👍

Touch this for more interesting topics.

Source;- MDSMAFE

***************

If you have interesting Medicine related topics,high yields, Mnemonics,shortcuts,tips and tricks, quick reviews, send it to this WhatsApp 9488608986.

***************

Leave a Reply